- Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Introduction ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonBackground:First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.Geography ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonLocation:Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)Geographic coordinates:46 50 N, 56 20 WArea:total: 242 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 214land: 242 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmnote: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groupsArea - comparative:one and half times the size of Washington, DCLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:120 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windyTerrain:mostly barren rockElevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 mhighest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 mNatural resources:fish, deepwater portsLand use:arable land: 8.7%permanent crops: 0%other: 91.3% (2011)Irrigated land:NANatural hazards:persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazardEnvironment - current issues:recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environmentGeography - note:vegetation scantyPeople and Society ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonNationality:noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)adjective: FrenchEthnic groups:Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)Languages:French (official)Religions:Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%Population:5,774 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 229Age structure:0-14 years: 16.5% (male 491/female 463)15-24 years: 8.5% (male 254/female 239)25-54 years: 44% (male 1,264/female 1,275)55-64 years: 13.9% (male 421/female 380)65 years and over: 17.1% (male 405/female 582) (2013 est.)Median age:total: 43.9 yearsmale: 43.5 yearsfemale: 44.3 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:-1.01% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 231Birth rate:7.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 222Death rate:9.18 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Net migration rate:-8.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 207Urbanization:urban population: 91% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:SAINT-PIERRE (capital) 5,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 162male: 8.28 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 5.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.13 yearscountry comparison to the world: 32male: 77.83 yearsfemale: 82.56 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.55 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 182HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAEducation expenditures:NALiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 99%male: 99%female: 99% (1982 est.)Government ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonCountry name:conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelonconventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelonlocal long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelonlocal short form: Saint-Pierre et MiquelonDependency status:self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of FranceGovernment type:parliamentary representative democracyCapital:name: Saint-Pierregeographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 Wtime difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in NovemberAdministrative divisions:none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon at the second orderIndependence:none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)National holiday:Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1789)Constitution:4 October 1958 (French Constitution)Legal system:French civil lawSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012); represented by Prefect Patrice LATRON (since 16 November 2011)head of government: President of the Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 February 2007)cabinet: NA(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council elected by the members of the councilLegislative branch:unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats, 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)elections: elections last held on 18 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NAnote: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect one member to the French Senate; elections last held on 21 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects one member to the French National Assembly; elections last held on 17 June 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRG 1Judicial branch:highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NAsubordinate courts: NAPolitical parties and leaders:Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UDF/RPR list)Cap sur l'Avenir (affiliated with PRG)Left Radical Party or PRGRassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP)Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2000/Avenir Miquelon or SPM 2000/AMSocialist Party or PSUnion pour la Democratie Francaise or UDFPolitical pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:UPU, WFTU (NGOs)Diplomatic representation in the US:none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)Diplomatic representation from the US:none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)Flag description:a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier ""discovered"" the islands in 1536note: the flag of France used for official occasionsNational symbol(s):16th-century sailing shipNational anthem:note: as a collectivity of France, ""La Marseillaise"" is official (see France)Economy ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonEconomy - overview:The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.GDP (purchasing power parity):$215.3 million (2006 est.)country comparison to the world: 219note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 millionGDP (official exchange rate):$215.3 million (2006 est.)GDP - real growth rate:NA%GDP - per capita (PPP):$34,900 (2006 est.)country comparison to the world: 42GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 2%industry: 15%services: 83% (2006 est.)Agriculture - products:vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fishIndustries:fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourismIndustrial production growth rate:NA%Labor force:3,194 (2006)country comparison to the world: 225Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 18%industry: 41%services: 41% (1996)Unemployment rate:9.9% (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 106Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $70 millionexpenditures: $60 million (1996)Taxes and other revenues:32.5% of GDPcountry comparison to the world: 78Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):4.6% of GDPcountry comparison to the world: 14Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):4.5% (2010)country comparison to the world: 1358.1% (2005)Exports:$6.641 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 215$5.5 million (2005 est.)Exports - commodities:fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink peltsImports:$95.35 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 213$68.2 million (2005 est.)Imports - commodities:meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materialsDebt - external:$NAExchange rates:euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.7778 (2012 est.)0.7185 (2011 est.)0.755 (2010 est.)0.7198 (2009 est.)0.6827 (2008 est.)Energy ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonElectricity - production:53 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 203Electricity - consumption:49.29 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 204Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 123Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 126Electricity - installed generating capacity:27,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 170Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 193Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 175Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 180Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 126Refined petroleum products - consumption:974.1 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 204Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 127Refined petroleum products - imports:584 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 199Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 184Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 188Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 171Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 123Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 186Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:152,600 Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 197Communications ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonTelephones - main lines in use:4,800 (2010)country comparison to the world: 211Telephone system:general assessment: adequateinternational: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite systemBroadcast media:2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2007)Internet country code:.pmInternet hosts:15 (2012)country comparison to the world: 224Transportation ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonAirports:2 (2013)country comparison to the world: 209Airports - with paved runways:total: 21,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)Roadways:total: 117 kmcountry comparison to the world: 214paved: 80 kmunpaved: 37 km (2000)Ports and terminals:Saint-PierreMilitary ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonManpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,064females age 16-49: 1,069 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 34female: 32 (2010 est.)Military - note:defense is the responsibility of FranceTransnational Issues ::Saint Pierre and MiquelonDisputes - international:none"
The World Factbook. 2014.